女人在校学习战绩更加好

2019-09-13 06:49 来源:未知

图片 1图表来自:BBC

Gender, education and work: The weaker sex

Boys are being outclassed by girls at both school and university, and the gap is widening

在高卯月大学阶段,男孩正被女孩超越,且距离正逐步拉大。

“IT’S all to do with their brains and bodies and chemicals,” says Sir Anthony Seldon, the master of Wellington College, a**posh**English**boarding school**. “There’s a**mentality**that it’s not cool for them to perform, that it’s not cool to be smart,” suggests Ivan Yip, principal of the Bronx Leadership Academy in New York. One school charges £25,000 ($38,000) a year and has a**scuba-diving**club; the other serves subsidised lunches to most of its pupils, a quarter of whom have**special needs**. Yet both**are grappling with**the same problem: teenage boys are being left behind by girls.

一所高端乌克兰语寄宿高校的校长AnthonySeldon称“那统统在于他们的大脑、身体和荷尔蒙”。LondonBronx Leadership Academy院长伊凡Yip称“他们遍布感觉努力是不酷的,聪明是不酷的”。后边三个收取金钱3.8万欧元一年并设有潜水俱乐部;而另叁个为其大多数学生提供午饭补贴,44%的学习者有独特殊艺术学必要。可是,它们都千篇一律致力于消除一样难点:青年男孩远远滞后于女孩。

It is a problem that would have been unimaginable a few decades ago. Until the 1960s boys spent longer and went further in school than girls, and were more likely to graduate from university. Now, across the rich world and in a growing number of poor countries, the balance has**tilted**the other way. Policymakers who once fretted about girls’ lack of confidence in science now spend their time dangling copies of “Harry Potter” before surly boys. Sweden has commissioned research into its “boy crisis”. Australia has devised a reading programme called “Boys, Blokes, Books & Bytes”. In just a couple of generations, one gender gap has closed, only for another to open up.

那是叁个十几年前不可能想像的难点。直到19世纪70年份在此以前,男孩比女孩花费越来越长日子并收获越来越高等教学育,且更有望从大学毕业。未来,无论是富裕世界依旧进一步多的清苦国家,平衡向另一方倾斜。曾经忧虑女孩贫乏科学信心的攻略制订者们,以往越来越多时光在强行男孩近期摇拽《哈利Porter》。瑞士联邦政坛已委托了一项有关“男孩危害”的钻研。澳大孟菲斯联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)举行了一项”男孩,男子,书和比特”的品类。仅仅几代时间内,前壹本性别差别消失,而后一种性别差距又出新。

The**reversal**is laid out in a report published on March 5th by the OECD, a Paris-based rich-country think-tank. Boys’ dominance just about endures in maths: at age 15 they are, on average, the equivalent of three months’ schooling ahead of girls. In science the results are fairly even. But in reading, where girls have been ahead for some time, a gulf has appeared. In all 64 countries and economies in the study, girls outperform boys. The average gap is equivalent to an**extra**year of schooling.

以法国巴黎为营地的充盈世界智库OECD于12月5号发表了一份简报中呈现了这种反转。男生在数学领域的主导地位大概会反复。在平均年龄拾柒岁时,男孩超过同年龄女孩3个月。在自然科学领域,男女学生表现相当。不过,在读书领域,女孩向来维系超过地位,且距离变得更加大。在这项钻探所涉及的63个国家和经济体中,女孩比男孩表现特出。女孩平均比男孩超前二个学年。

The OECD**deems**literacy**to be the most**important skill that it assesses, since further learning depends on it. Sure enough, teenage boys are 50% more likely than girls to fail to achieve basic proficiency in any of maths, reading and science (see chart 1). Youngsters in this group, with nothing to**build on**or**shine at**, are prone to drop out of school altogether.

因进一步学习要求依赖读写技巧,OECD将它看作评估中最要害的才具。果真如此,在促成数学、阅读和自然科学的根底才干时,年轻男孩比女孩多出一半的挫败恐怕。在这几个群众体育的青年,因无所依附和无所精华,而更有一点都不小或许从高校辍学。

To see why boys and girls fare so differently in the classroom, first**look at**what they do outside it. The average 15-year-old girl devotes five-and-a-half hours a week to homework, an hour more than the average boy, who spends more time playing video games and**trawling the internet**. Three-quarters of girls read for pleasure, compared with little more than half of boys. Reading rates are falling everywhere as screens draw eyes from pages, but boys are giving up faster. The OECD found that, among boys who do as much homework as the average girl, the gender gap in reading fell by nearly a quarter.

要精通为何男人和女子在课堂内展现出这么反差,先从课堂之外活动入手。一般16虚岁女孩每一周开支5.5钟头去做家庭作业,比平均男孩多贰个小时,他们成本越来越多日子玩电子游艺和上网。3/4的女孩子将阅读作为消遣,而唯有二分一多点的男士这么做。随着显示屏逐渐把目光从本本挪开,世界上有所地点的阅读率正逐步收缩,而男子下落速度越来越快。OECD发掘,在这二个和一般女孩子职业一般的男生中,在翻阅方面包车型地铁性别差别降低了二分之一左右。

Once in the classroom, boys**long to**be out of it. They are twice as likely as girls to report that school is a “waste of time”, and more often turn up late. Just as teachers used to struggle to persuade girls that science is not only for men, the OECD now urges parents and policymakers to steer boys away from a version of**masculinity**that ignores academic achievement. “There are different pressures on boys,” says Mr Yip. “Unfortunately there’s a tendency where they try to**live up to**certain expectations in terms of [bad] behavior.”

一授课,男士就渴望快点截至。在告知中,多于女子2倍的男子以为上课是浪费时间,并且更平日迟到。就好像过去教师努力说服女子自然科学并不只是男人领域,OECD近年来提出家长和方针制定者教导男子远离将忽视学术成就作为男子气概表现的这种主张。Yip校长说:“男孩面对着形形色色标压力。但不幸的是,他们打算在坏行为上不负被人指望。

Boys’**disdain**for school might have been less irrational when there were plenty of jobs for uneducated men. But those days**have long gone**. It may be that a bit of swagger helps in maths, where confidence plays a part in boys’ lead (though it sometimes extends to**delusion**: 12% of boys told the OECD that they were familiar with the mathematical concept of “subjunctive scaling”, a red herring that fooled only 7% of girls). But their lack of self-discipline drives teachers crazy.

当已经有非常多做事可供未受教育男人选用时,男孩鄙视高校还展现没那么非理性。不过那多少个日子已经不复存在。大概有些骄傲有利于男士学习数学,自信促使男生抢先(但有时候则改为一种幻觉:12%的男孩告诉OECD他们纯熟”设想缩放“这一概念,而这一假概念则只蒙骗到7%的女孩)。但他俩缺少约束让名师极高烧。

Perhaps because they can be so insufferable, teenage boys are often marked down. The OECD found that boys did much better in its anonymized tests than in teacher assessments. The gap with girls in reading was a third smaller, and the gap in maths—where boys were already ahead—opened up further. In another finding that suggests a lack of even-handedness among teachers, boys are more likely than girls to be forced to repeat a year, even when they are of equal ability.

兴许因为她俩这么令人难以忍受,青年男孩日常给予非常低分数。OECD发掘,男孩在无名测验中的表现好于名师评估。在阅读方面包车型客车性别差距缩短了1/2;而在数学方面,已抢先的男人将反差拉大。另一斟酌展现,因老师贫乏公正,固然技术卓殊。匹夫也比女孩子更有十分的大可能率被要求复读一年,

What is behind this discrimination? One possibility is that teachers mark up students who are**polite, eager and stay out of fights**, all**attributes**that are more common among girls. In some countries, academic points can even be**dock**ed for bad behaviour. Another is that women, who make up eight out of ten primary-school teachers and nearly seven in ten lower-secondary teachers, favour their own sex, just as male bosses have been shown to favour male underlings. In a few places sexism is**enshrined**in law: Singapore still**canes**boys, while**sparing**girls the rod.是什么

产生这种差异对待?一种也许的讲明是导师给予那三个礼貌、热心和远远地离开打架的学员越来越高分数,而那些特色在女孩中特别宽泛。在有的国度,乃至会因不良行为而扣掉学业分数。另一种恐怕是,女子,构成了70%的小教的和附近70%的初级中学年天命之年师,更偏好她们自个儿的性别,就像男人上级偏心雄性人类下属一般。在有些地点在法国网球国际赛前也许有性别主义:新加坡共和国依然允许鞭刑男子,而女子则免于该民法通则。

Some countries provide an environment in which boys can do better. In Latin America the gender gap in reading is relatively small, with boys in**Chile**,**Colombia**,**Mexico**and**Peru**trailing girls less than they do elsewhere. Awkwardly, however, this nearly always**comes with**a wider gender gap in maths,**in favour of**boys. The reverse is true, too: Iceland, Norway and Sweden, which have got girls up to parity with boys in maths, struggle with uncomfortably wide gender gaps in reading. Since 2003, the last occasion when the OECD did a big study, boys in a few countries have caught up in reading and girls in several others have significantly narrowed the gap in maths. No country has managed both.

在多少国家为男孩表现杰出提供了条件。在拉美,阅读方面包车型客车性别差别绝对极小。如智利、哥伦比亚共和国、墨西哥和秘鲁(Peru)的男人落后于女人小于其余地方。可是,令人质疑的是,那总伴随着男子在数学方面超越于女子的距离加大。反过来也成立。女孩与男孩在数学方面呈现卓越的冰岛、挪威和瑞士联邦,挣扎于令人上火的稳步加宽的阅读方面性别差别。自2002年OECD最终三遍就此打开的宽广考查呈现,少数国家男子在阅读方面蒙受了女孩子,而在另一对国度女人成功裁减了数学方面包车型地铁歧异。但尚未国家成功达成双方。

Girls’ educational dominance**persists**after school. Until a few decades ago men were in a clear majority at university almost everywhere (see chart 2), particularly in advanced courses and in science and engineering. But as higher education has boomed worldwide, women’s enrolment has increased almost twice as fast as men’s. In the OECD women now make up 56% of students enrolled, up from 46% in 1985. By 2025 that may rise to 58%.

中级教育之后,女性的当先地位继续维持。直至新近数十年,男人大约攻下大学的主流人群,极度是没有错与工程领域的高阶课程。可是,随着高教在世界范围的如日方升,女子入学增进率大约两倍于男人。在OECD申报称,女性注册率由1982年的二分之一回涨至二分之一,到2025年大概回升至1/2。

Even in the handful of OECD countries where women are in the minority on campus, their numbers**are creeping up**. Meanwhile several, including America, Britain and parts of Scandinavia, have 50% more women than men on campus. Numbers in many of America’s elite private colleges are more evenly balanced. It is widely believed that their opaque admissions criteria are relaxed for men.

不畏在少数女子是少数人全的OECD国家,女子数量也再稳步攀升。与此相同的时间,一些席卷U.S.、大不列颠及英格兰联合王国和亚洲国度,女子比男人人口多于八分之四。在无尽美利哥才女公立高校中,性别比例越来越平衡。许几个人感觉那些大学的不透明招生规范更加的偏心男子。

The feminisation of higher education was so gradual that for a long time it passed unremarked. According to Stephan Vincent-Lancrin of the OECD, when in 2008 it published a report pointing out just how far it had gone, people “couldn’t believe it”.

高教的女子化进度如此缓慢,以致于在相当短日子内未被人开采。据OECD的Stephan Vincent-Lancrin称,当二〇一〇年一份有关报告摘立刻,人们“不依赖这结果”。

Women who go to university are more likely than their male peers to graduate, and typically get better grades. But men and women tend to study different subjects, with many women choosing courses in education, health, arts and the humanities, whereas men take up computing, engineering and the**exact sciences**. In mathematics women are**drawing level**; in the life sciences, social sciences, business and law they have moved ahead.

步入大学的女人,绝对于她们的男人同僚,更有非常大可能率毕业,且赢得更加好地培养。不过,男子和女性所选科目标偏向差异。越来越多地女子选拔教育、健康、艺术和人事教育育学科,而男子越多选拔Computer、工程和精细科学等学科。在数学方面,女子正一直以来,而在科学、社科、商业和法律方面,她们处于超越地位。

Social change has done more to encourage women to enter higher education than any deliberate policy.**The Pill**and a decline in the average number of children, together with later marriage and childbearing, have made it easier for married women to join the workforce. As more women went out to work, discrimination became less**sharp**. Girls saw the point of study once they were expected to have careers. Rising divorce rates underlined the importance of being able to provide for yourself. These days girls nearly everywhere seem more ambitious than boys, both academically and in their careers. It is hard to believe that in 1900-50 about half of jobs in America were barred to married women.

相对于其余蓄意的政策,社会变革更利于于鼓舞女人进入高教。口服避孕片和平均育儿数量的下跌,以及晚婚和晚育等,为已婚女子找出职业提供了福利。随着更加多女人步入工作情形,歧视变得没那么确定。一旦女人被冀望全体职业发展时,女孩就开掘到读书的显要。上涨的离异率使得女子意识到自己供养的首要。如今,无论是学业上依然职场上,世界各省的女孩比男孩表现出更清远想。莫名其妙,在19世界上半叶,大约大半U.S.办事禁止已婚女子从事。

So are women now on their way to becoming the dominant sex? Hanna Rosin’s book, “The End of Men and the Rise of Women”, published in 2012, argues that in America, at least, women are ahead not only**educationally**but increasingly also**professionally**and**socially**. Policymakers in many countries worry about the**prospect**of a growing**underclass**of**ill-educated men**. That should worry women, too: in the past they have typically married men in their own social group or above. If there are too few of those, many women will have**to marry down**or not at all.

那正是说,女子是还是不是渐渐形成人中学坚性别?出版于2011年的Ranna Rosin的《The End of Men and the Rise of Women》中提议,至少在美利坚联邦合众国,女性不独有教育上超过,还在专门的职业上和社会上打头。好多国度的战术制订者想念数量逐年攀升的下层阶级的教诲程度相当的低的男子的今后前景。女人也理应担心那一点。在过去,女子一般与同阶层或高于自身阶层的男人成婚。假诺这种男人非常少,大大多女子只好搜索下阶层男子或接纳不拜天地。

According to the OECD, the return on investment in a degree is higher for women than for men in many countries, though not all. In America PayScale, a company that**crunches**incomes data, found that the return on investment in a college degree for women was lower than or at best the same as for men. Although women as a group are now better qualified, they earn about three-quarters as much as men. A big reason is the choice of subject: education, the humanities and social work pay less than engineering or computer science. But academic research shows that women attach less importance than men to the graduate pay premium, suggesting that a high financial return is not the main reason for their further education.

据OECD显示,虽不是一切,可是在比较多国度,高教投入对女子的回报超越男子。一家募集收入数据的商城America PayScale发掘,女人对于高校文化水平的投资报酬率绝对于男子来说,很低或(在非常情状下)相似。就算女性总体表现尤其,但他俩报酬水平仅为男性的3/4。主要缘由在于相对于工程或Computer科学等,女性选拔教育、人文和社科这类薪水异常低科目。不过,学术研商突显相对于男人,女人更加少的保护薪金,突显了谋求高回报并不是女人追求高教的重要原因。

At the highest levels of business and the professions, women remain notably scarce. In a reversal of the pattern at school, the anonymous and therefore gender-blind essays and exams at university protect female students from bias. But in the workplace, says Elisabeth Kelan of Britain’s Cranfield School of Management, “traditional patterns assert themselves in miraculous ways”. Men and women join the medical and legal professions in roughly equal numbers, but 10-15 years later many women have chosen unambitious career paths or dropped out to spend time with their children. Meanwhile men**are rising through the ranks**as qualifications gained long ago fade in importance and personality, ambition and experience come to matter more.

在高高的层级的生意和正式领域,女人还是非常少。女人在母校所显现优势被转换局面。在全校,诗歌及考试评价是佚名的,性别因素被制止,而珍贵女子不受性别歧视的震慑。然则,来自于United KingdomCraneField哲大学的Elisabeth Kelan称,在办事场地守旧格局再一次证实本人。同等数量的男人和女子加入军事大学和法律高校,可是,10-15年过后,诸多女子选择了特别干燥的饭碗路径或开销越多日子陪孩子。与此同期,随着在此以前习得的阅历的第一慢慢消亡而性格、雄心和经历成为更为首要的熏陶因素,男人在生意层级上日渐攀升。

For a long time it was said that since women had historically been**underrepresented**in university and work, it would take time to fill the pipeline from which senior appointments were made. But after 40 years of making up the majority of graduates in some countries,**that argument is wearing thin**. According to Claudia Goldin, an economics professor at Harvard, the “last chapter” in the story of women’s rise—equal pay and access to the best jobs—will not come without big structural changes.

十分短一段时间以来,流传着一种说法:因历史范围来看,无论是大学也许职场,女子所占比例不足,因而要求时日去建立通往高层职位的渠道。不过40年以来,一些国家毕业生人数中女人形成主流,那项论证更加的站不住脚。据德克萨斯奥斯汀分校大学军事学助教ClaudiaGoldin称,女性崛起的末尾环节--平等的报酬和特级专门的学问只怕--若不开展大幅度结构调治是不会赶到。

In a recent paper in the American Economic Review Ms Goldin found that the difference between the hourly earnings of highly qualified men and their female peers grows hugely in the first 10-15 years of working life, largely because of a big**premium**in some highly paid jobs on putting in long days and being constantly on call. On the whole men find it easier than women to work in this way. Where such jobs are common, for example in business and the law, the gender pay gap remains wide and even**short spells**out of the workforce are severely penalised, meaning that**motherhood**can**exact**a heavy price. Where pay is roughly proportional to hours worked, as in pharmacy, it is low.

在AEPRADO的新星文献中,Goldin女士开采高性能劳引力中,在干活生活的10到15年间,男人小时薪酬与女子差距巨大,首要原因在于高收入专门的学问的大幅奖金取决于长日子专门的工作和每天应对电话为前提。全体来说,男性相对于女子更擅长如此行事。在这种工作方法遍布的天地,如商业和法则,性别报酬差别还是比比较大。而且,以至长期离开职业条件也恐怕导致严重惩罚,意味着老母须求交给异常的大代价。而当专门的学问薪金首要借助理工科程师时长度时,如同配药房,性别报酬差别一点都不大。

There will always be jobs where flexibility is not an option, says Ms Goldin: those of CEOs, trial lawyers, surgeons, some bankers and senior politicians come to mind. In many others, pay does not need to depend on being**available all hours**—and well-educated men who want a life outside work would benefit from change, too. But the new gender gap is at the other end of the pay spectrum. And it is not women who are suffering, but unskilled men.

Goldin女士称:有个别职业是难以达成灵活性的,仿佛那多少个总老总s、法院开庭审判律师、男科医师、银行家和有个别显赫政客们。而别的其余工作,薪金并不是在于随时待命。同期,受过突出教育且想要脱离专门的学业的男人也会从中受益。不过,新的性别差别位于薪资范围的另一端。受苦的永不女子,而是无技艺的男子。

Some people think that it is better to educate boys and girls in separate schools. Others, however, believe that boys and girls benefit more from attending mixed schools. Discuss both these views and give your own opinion.

  Girls outperform boys in school exams

Some countries have single-sex education models, while in others both single sex and mixed schools co-exist and it is up to the parents or the children to decide which model is preferable.

  Vocabulary: education: 词汇:教育

Some educationalists think that it is more effective to educate boys and girls in single-sex schools because they believe this environment can reduce distractions and encourage pupils concentrate on their studies. This is probably true to some extent. It also allow more equality among pupils and gives more opportunity to all those at the school to choose subject more freely without gender prejudice. For example, a much higher proportion of girls study science to a high level when they attend girls' schools than their counterpart in mixed schools do. Similarly, boys in single-sex schools are more likely to take cookery classes and to study languages, which are often thought of as traditional subjects for girls.

  Around the world, girls do better than boys at school。 These are the findings of a recent study that looked at the test results of 1.5 million 15-year-olds in 74 regions across the globe。

On the other hand, some experts would argue that mixed schools prepare their pupils for their future lives. Girls and boys learn to live together from an early age and are consequently not emotionally underdeveloped in their relations with the opposite sex. They are also able to learn each other, and to experience different types of skill and talent than might be evident in a single gender environment.

  The level of gender equality in those regions made no difference to the results。 Other factors, such as the income level of the region also had little impact on the findings。 In only three regions – Colombia, Costa Rica and the Indian state Himachal Pradesh – was the trend reversed with boys doing better。

Personally, I think that there are advantages to both systems. I went to a mixed school, but feel that myself missed the opportunity to specialise in cookery because it was seen as the natural domain and career path for girl. So because of that, I would have preferred to go to a boys' school. But hopefully times have changed, and both genders of student can have equal chances to study what they want to in whichever type of school they attend.

  So what are the causes of girls’ stronger performance? In the UK, girls outperform boys in exams that are taken at the age of 15 or 16, called GCSEs。 According to education expert Ian Toone, this is down to the way girls and boys are brought up。 “Boys are encouraged to be more active from an early age, whereas the restless movements of baby girls are pacified… Hence, girls develop the skill of sitting still for longer periods of time, which is useful for academic pursuits like studying for GCSEs。“

  He goes on to say that boys often cluster together in larger groups than girls。 Because of this they are more likely to be influenced by peer pressure and develop a gang mentality。 He says that GCSEs require a lot of solo work and are not viewed as ‘cool’ in a laddish culture。

  This is backed up by research in the UK that says girls are out-performing boys at the age of five。 So what is the answer? Should girls and boys be educated separately? Or do exams and school curricula need to be changed to better reflect boys’ skills? These are the questions facing educators in many countries。

  Glossary 词汇表

  gender equality男女一样

  factor因素

  income level收入水平

  to reverse a trend改变局面一种偏向

  to pacify使安静、平定

  academic pursuit学术追求

  to cluster(人)聚集

  to influence影响

  peer pressure同龄人压力

  gang mentality黑道心态

  solo单独的,独自地

  cool酷

  laddish幼稚的,孩子气的

  school curricula高校课程

  to reflect反映

  小说来源:BBC

见习编辑:王雨欣 小编:赵润琰

TAG标签:
版权声明:本文由彩世界app下载发布于联系我们,转载请注明出处:女人在校学习战绩更加好